Fever

Archives, which constitute a network of information and data are available for people access later. It makes up a large part of publishing, also offers the range of possibilities of what we can do. For example, in a big picture, the archives could be documents, laws, institutional records; in our daily life, the archives could be mobile phone contacts, address books; also in the media distribution channel, it could be websites, newspaper and E-reader.

Jacques Derrida, the philosopher and author of Archive Fever (1997, Chicago: University of Chicago Press), suggests that media archives which interacts with each single identity. For example, website could stimulate individuals to read newspaper if the contents are unavailable online. Also, website reading could destroy the physical publishing.

Fever, means a kind of desires which regaining moments of inception, to find and possess al sorts of beginnings (Sharon, 2007).  Archives fever represents different ways of publishing would constitute our modes of living, also different forms of information persevered and distributed to the public, which would impacts individuals, either in the big pictures, or in every moment of daily livings.

Apparently, it could be recognised almost everyone has started to construct individual archives. For example, university students would like to post the status and pictures on the Facebook. Sometimes, Facebook could be regarded as a virtual discussion place for group work or team activities. When we started to upload something which we could see in the future, it should be a start of archiving.

Archives never closed, it would open for the future. It should be concerned is social network websites wields extraordinary and often unacknowledged power to control distribution of information, individually and collectively (Jon, 2003). Also, if website is public archives, individual security and privately owned information will be threatened. For example, Wikileaks lays the basis for authority.

However, it could be believed that online resource will have opportunity to make the stream of information more transparent in the future.

References:

Stokes, Jon (2003) ‘Reading Notes: Archive Fever’, Ars Technica, June 27, <http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2003/06/130.ars>

Howard, Sharon (2007) ‘Reposted: Archive fever (a dusty digression)’, Early Modern Notes, September 25, <http://emn.sharonhoward.org/2007/09/reposted-archive-fever-a-dusty-digression/>

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Assemblage

Assemblage could be a relational network of elements or actants in a flat ontology. For print publishing, it could be identified as assembling of elements or relations to make media platform new. Apparently, the transformation of history print publishing to contemporary print publishing has already emerged, and no one can heading  the new invention.

Firstly, I will talk about something about assemblage. Basis of French thinker, Bruno Latour’s Actor Network Theory(ANT), mentioned in his book said that you should treat all things(human actants, non human actants)equally when you analyse an assemblage. Otherwise, considering all the relations as these come into a network of assemblage, one element changes, the relation will changes respectively. Similarly, when the elements/actants changes, the network(assemblage) changes or it forms parts of a lager assemblage. According to Latour, it also remind us the political system will constantly reconfigured, because the new relations created, the new party formed. We should remain suspicious of all spokespersons speaking on behalf of things (2010).

Put differently, no entity can be absolutely isolated, because it is always involved in multiple relations of one sort or another (Steven,2007). For print publishing thinking, every elements involved depend on each other. For example,  the advent of E-reader depends on the Internet working.

Traditionally, the print publishing assembled of human actants (Publisher, Reader and Writer) and non human actants (Book, newspaper and magazines etc). Nowadays, E-reader publishing and multimedia publishing has already emerged. The larger assemblage of media has already formed. The printing publishing is not just the psychical paper, it could be e-reader ( Kindle, Nook), the distribution way is not only the psychical book store or retail store, it could be online bookstore (Amazon) or Apple store. Especially, the new advent of social media could be specifically mentioned. It involves a large amount of population and social network websites to meet together. One point we can make sure is the assemblage of print publishing is changing larger.

Reference reading:

‘Actor Network Rochambeau’, any-space-whatever blog, <http://www.anyspacewhatever.com/actor-network-rochambeau/>, November 14, 2010 (on Latour)

Shaviro, Steven (2007) ‘DeLanda: A New Philosophy of Society’, The Pinocchio Theory.

Newspaper In Relation To The Newly-shaped World

Briefly, modes of publishing could be seen as print publishing and digital publishing. Print publishing (also called physically content) is a traditional way to make public known. For example, legal documents, books, newspapers and government and institutional records could be genuinely touched by public.

Otherwise, digital publishing, because the content is electronic, it generally could be distributed via Internet and e-bookstores. The consumer could read the published content on a website, in an application on a tablet device (Kindle and Nook), or in a PDF on a computer.

With the advent of Internet, reading habits had been changed to different ways. Public could choose web site reading, e-reader reading and free online reading. We have to say, e-reading is the most convenient way to access information mostly without paid. It partly destroyed the traditional print publishing mode, especially newspaper industry. With worldwide financial crisis, newspaper cannot rely on advertisement uniquely. Therefore, newspaper industry should find a new way to keep business go on. However, there is a problem we should figure out, a plenty of news online are fake and fictional. For example, some news happened in Iraq wars made up by the unscrupulous journalism. Therefore, newspaper industry develops a way, ‘paywall’, to maintain their business in short run. ‘Paywall’ means online newspaper will provide free news in some section, but if individual wants to get more valuable and accountable news, they should pay for them. New York Times advocated this way to keep business go on consistently, and recently it announced the estimated subscribers reached 250,000(Gillmor,2011).

Interestingly, with increasing costs of print publishing, most institutions and individuals target  online publishing to receive revenue and capture the market. Apparently, there is a increasing number of online blog posts nowadays, and some of  famous blog writers employed by a institution as a way of advertisement to gain profit.

Paywall: Points&Counterpoints

Reference:

Gillmor,D. (2011) ‘The New York Times paywall: the faint smell of success’, The Guardian, August 3, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/aug/03/new-york-times-paywall>

Rupert Murdoch(2010), Paywall: Points and Counterpoints,

Reading Habit Has Been Changed

Open publishing is different from old traditional publishing, it aims creating a transparent way to disseminate information and creating news to general public. Overwhelmingly, the Internet is the best choice to achieve open publishing than any other ways, such as newspaper and books. Fundamentally, Internet sites could open publishing software allow anyone to get access with free content and upload the unsolicited  information directly without monitoring.

For economical and convenient thinking, more and more people are falling into using tablets to read books and receive information. Actually, I become one member of  them last year when I started my Uni study. Initially, I found if I print all readings and lecture notes, it would be heavy and easily lost. Therefore, I chose use ipad to take notes and reading articles. Coincidentally, my friends recommended me a bestseller book,and I just tried to search in the apple store and I got a free version to read. And now, I become a genuine e-reader.

Let’s have a macro look on E-reading. Apparently, the traditional concept of a ‘book’ likes magazines and periodicals has been changed under pressure of tablets devices, Naughton mentioned in his article. The advent of ipad and other tablets devices, in other words, could be called like e-books (2010). And that also could save the books with embed pictures and videos. We have to say this is a fascinating change for most people who are frequent book buyers. The advent of ipad and other tablets devices could make reading easier, cheaper and more convenient. For example, everyone could read books when they have lunch or get on the buses. E-readers could get access a variety of books than going to physical book store and they don’t have to wait for unavailable books at that time. Otherwise, Kindle and Nook, which are available to offer the e-books just replicates the experience of reading a physical book, they do not change the experience of reading print, Wortham mentioned in his article (2010). Also, she advises e-readers could comment and discuss the e-article and share with others via social network, such as Twitter and Facebook.

Surprisingly, an innovative software, Voiceover, invented by Apple could help more blind readers to have sound reading experiences(2010).

 

Reference:

Naughton, John (2010) ‘Publishers take note: the iPad is altering the very concept of a ‘book’ The Guardian, December 19, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/dec/19/ipad-publishing-kindle-books-apple>

Wortham, Jenna (2010) ‘Social Books Hopes to Make E-Reading Communal’, New York Times, November 11, <http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/11/social-books-hopes-to-make-e-reading-communal/>

National Public Radio (2010) ‘E-Book Boom Changes Book Selling And Publishing’, December 21, <http://www.npr.org/2010/12/21/132235154/e-book-boom-changes-book-selling-and-publishing>

Picture reference:

http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/11/social-books-hopes-to-make-e-reading-communal/

 

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