Open Science

I’ve been looking through the readings and lecture this week, which focus on talking about they way science transforms the media communication, and thus affecting on the audience. Basically, the science is the centre, which encloses all industries and government work together to redevelop and strengthen it. Initially, presenting the idea of scientific knowledge to the reality was until advent of printing, which demonstrated that distributing science knowledge is deeply tied with the medium (Wilbanks, 2013).

Nevertheless, in the present day, a digital way, in terms of open science to provide scientific knowledge is more prevalent and trendy than before. Because Web 2.0 as an scientifically innovative idea, meeting the society’s requirements for everything to become “faster” (SEED, 2011), which also has the potential to save the cost as well as time to printing. Also, the collective communication online also helps expand and accelerate scientific discovery and distribution of scientific knowledge. For example, the scientists could create a specific blogs for the Internet users to comment their science ideas when they have potential to undertake a science project. The results would be salient and faster, and the comment of the Internet users also can help find out the results of the projects. Scientific issues had already expanded in a global level with the help of Web 2.0, which means open science could potentially to solve unanswered problems or just increase the awareness of the public at least.

Otherwise, some scientists also mentioned that scientific paper actually are not appropriate to publish on open science level such as blogs, it could be though. Firstly, a paper on blog cannot offer a contextual senses rather than a book. And, when scientists who are criticised in a blogosphere they often would ask their critics to provide their viewpoints for peer-review. However, the point is the review cannot basically dismiss a critique; often it becomes to encourage the critics to make the critique. Unfortunately, technical commentary does not work well at social network such as blogs, and the Internet conversation often take personal-oriented desire which barely happens in a published physical science literature (Schmit, 2011).

There is also a case that the science reactions against the Chemical project blogs.

[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJvJAt0RLMk]

Reference:

Wilbanks, 2013, The Scientific paper has long been the unit of scientific knowledge. Now, with print media lapsing into obsolescence , the Internet is poised to transform science publishing and science itself, SEED,

http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/on_science_publishing  (Last accessed on 14 May,2013)

Schmidt, Gavin (2011) ‘From Blog to Science’, RealClimate   http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2011/02/from-blog-to-science/  (Last accessed on 14 May,2013)

Nielsen, Michael, ‘Open science’, 2011
<http://michaelnielsen.org/blog/open-science-2/> (Last accessed on 14 May,2013)

Seed 2011, On Science Transfer, Seed Magazine, <http://seedmagazine.com/content/print/on_science_transfer>(Last accessed on 14 May,2013)

Live in a new communities (Social Organisation)

It’s not hard to find that we both live and work in a new media era. As I mentioned in the last blog, “transversal is a line cuts across other lines, even across the entire fields, which brings those fields together in a new way or recreates those fields as something else” (Murphie, 2006). As media technologies connect with an increasing number of social fields around the world, transversality is the inevitable discipline that the new media should contact (Murphie, 2009). The forms of new media would connect with social culture, commerce and even politics. In this blog, I would argue that political issues are also embedded into transversal concerns.

Basically, Internet is built on a fundamentally hierarchical structure, which includes a top-down government control or dominated by the large monopoly organisation (2011). But recently,  we are witnessing the potential of a peer-to-peer networking become diminish the top-down structure of Internet control. Generally, P2P aims to reach an extension of the Open Source model to access more information and technology. It’s believed that a democratic society should be based on freely distributed and increasingly participated modes of information, which opposed to current mainstream of centralised controlled information system (Anon,  2010).  For my personal experience, the most astonishing thing of P2P information started with the corporate-government banishment of WikiLeaks last year. It’s reported that WikiLeaks published 1.7m US diplomatic records (2013).

“Micro-politics is a creation of techniques for collaboration, which involve experimentations and an openness to be experimental (Jellis, 2009)”, and thus micro-politics offers a decentralised point for a new mode of politics. Micro-politics refers as a group of people use their power to achieve a sustainable goal. For example, We the People is launched by American White House, which aims to give all Americans a way to engage with their government on the issues that matters to them. Moreover, the 3Cs techniques used by Micro-politics, which keep everything more transparent than before, and prevalently use in the world to scrutinise the government . The photo below pictured that the differences between people attend the election of pontiff in Vatican.

Image

(NBC NEWS, 2013)

For instance, people could post the unfair judgement in relation to the politics on any social networks. It’s a effective way to distribute information like virus. The new media technologies allow every single person engaged into politics issues to protect their rights. Recently, hundreds of people have rallied in the Chinese city of Kunming to protest at plans for a factory producing a toxic chemical in a  textile industry. Moreover, most of people post images or texts via Weibo to encourage more people engage in the protest and protect their rights.Also, the social network service is also a platform for the Government to figure out residential’s reaction with their social plans.

Image

(BBC NEWS, 2013)

Blow is a link, which introduced how We the People works.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=MdcotOjqnVI

Reference

Anon, 2010, ‘Elinor Ostrom’, p2p foundation, 

http://p2pfoundation.net/Elinor_Ostrom (Last accessed on 8 May, 2013)

Murphie, A 2006, ‘Editorial’, Fibre Culture Journal, vol. 9, accessed 8 May 2013,

<http://nine.fibreculturejournal.org/>

Murphie, A.,(Edited) 2009, General issues, The Fiberculture Journal, 

http://nine.fibreculturejournal.org/ (Last accessed on 8 May, 2013)

WikiLeaks Publishes 1.7m US Diplomatic Records, 2013, Guardian UK,

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2013/apr/08/wikileaks-publishes-us-diplomatic-records (Last accessed on 8 May, 2013)

Jellis, Thomas, 2009, ‘Disorientation and micropolitics: a response’, spacesof[aesthetic]experimentation,

http://www.spacesofexperimentation.net/montreal/disorientation-and-micropolitics-a-response/ (Last accessed on 8 May, 2013)

Rushkoff, D., 2011, The evolution will be socialised, Shareable,

http://www.shareable.net/blog/the-evolution-will-be-socialized (Last accessed on 8 May, 2013)

The Music Industry of Tomorrow (Data)

As we see today, based on computerised society, the emergence of new media, digital media and Internet culture shows redefining of an area we’ve never been faced before. The redefinition is not only uncovered the shifting changes of medium, but also it suggests that one new way to contact with technologies, the transversality discipline (Murphie, 2006).

Simply put here, transversal means a line splits up with two or more lines, and brings them together in a new way to recreate them as something new else. (Murphie, 2006). And today, we are focusing on talking about transversal feature of music industry.

It won’t be newsworthy to you that the digitalisation and mobilisation transforms the music to the Internet and Smartphone, which has challenged the position of traditional music industry. A number of music artists believe that the album music had died for a long time. At the mean time, most of them concerns online music piracy will also negatively impacts on copyright holders and album sales in the digital era. However, a charged music app is a new and more effective way to protect the copyright holders. The REWORK_ is an interactive tour app through amazing new REWORK_ album that remixes Philip Glass’ music. In the Cyber culture age, when artists are struggling to look forward a new way to survive in a digital and mobile world, the apps like REWORK (Philip Glass Remixed) offers a few hints about how the music as an app model could work better. The basic idea of Rework is protecting the copyrights of the music producers. Because an experience like this would be much harder for people to pirate due to the higher cost of designing. Surprisingly, there might be a real opportunity here for a smart start-up to sell app-based tools to name the artists in a new way (Titlow, 2012).

2735-3-rework-philip-glass-remixed

(The interactive feature of the REWORK_, from Apple Store)

Nevertheless, a new research published by European Commission’s Joint Research Center says that the digital piracy such as  illegal downloading should not be regarded as an increasing concern that negatively impacts on the creative industry. And the reason might be that majority of the music that is consumed illegally by the individuals in research sample state that they won’t  purchase the music if illegal downloading websites were no longer available to them.

Reference:

Aguiar, L. & Martens, B., 2013, Digital Music Consumption on the Internet: Evidence from Clickstream Data, Joint Research Center, European Commission,

http://www.scribd.com/doc/131005609/JRC79605 (Last accessed on 24 April, 2013)

Murphie, A 2006, ‘Editorial’, Fibre Culture Journal, vol. 9, accessed 8 May 2013,

<http://nine.fibreculturejournal.org/>

Murphie, A.,(Edited) 2009, General issues, The Fiberculture Journal, 

http://nine.fibreculturejournal.org/ (Last accessed on 24 April, 2013)

Titlow, J.P., 2012, Philip Glass, Music apps and the music of the future,

https://www.diigo.com/bookmark/http%3A%2F%2Freadwrite.com%2F2012%2F12%2F23%2Fphilip-glass-music-apps-and-the-future-of-the-album%3Futm_source%3DReadWrite%2BNewsletters%26utm_medium%3Demail%26utm_campaign%3D16c41b9019-RWWDailyNewsletter?tab=people&uname=andersand (Last accessed on 24 April, 2013)

The real imagination-Augmented Reality (Augmented)

Reality is associated with physical sense, based on what really exists rather than the imagined things. The new media incorporates with the advanced technology, which also changes on things we can touch, see and hear. The reality is no more only about the real emergence but virtual things as well. The reality would be augmented to offer multi-dimensional senses to audiences. Moreover, augmented reality is a live, direct or indirect way to detect the real world environment, which elements are augmented by computer-based sensory input such as sound, video and graphics (2013).

The augmented reality is different from virtual reality, which produces a two way symmetrical communication relationship between computer-based sensory and the real-world environment. For example, when I had been to Paris this year, I found an app produced to help tourists visit the Louvre. Basically, it’s impossible for tourists visit all of treasures in the Louvre by one day due to its large dimensions. The Louvre app help people direct the way to find the most attractive exhibition in the Louvre such as the painting of Monalisa, sculpture of Venus and Nike of Samothrace. Furthermore, the Louvre app also provides the basic information to introduce the background of these exhibitions, which help people memorize and know the European history and culture. This app augmented the locations of reality to a 3D dimension, and help people direct the way to find what they are really looking forward to see. As Mashable states in the article, the augmented app is a helpful tool, especially where maps cannot always help you what you’re looking for such as the big museum (2013). The augmented reality app improves daily life and gives people a feeling of immersive with the environment.

Moreover, the augmented reality media also can help you make the decision when you are doing shopping. As an example of Ikea, customer can use augmented reality to browse the stores virtually with smartphone. Also, it’s predicted that as the emergence of 4D printing, people will be able to buy a chair from Ikea, bring it home and watch it assemble by itself (2013).

(IKEA 2013 Catalog with augmented reality, 2012, Newsgadgets.)

(Skylar Tibbits, 2013, director of the MIT Self-Assembly Lab, demonstrates the future of 4D printing.)

Reference:

7 ways augmented reality will improve your life, 2013, Mashable,

http://mashable.com/2012/12/19/augmented-reality-city/ (Last access on April 14, 13)

Augmented reality, 2013, Mashable,

http://mashable.com/category/augmented-reality/ (Last access on 14 April 13).

4D-printing: from self-assembling chairs to cancer-fighting robots, 2013, theguardian.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/architecture-design-blog/2013/apr/10/4d-printing-cancer-nano-robots (Last access on 14 April 13).

Experience with memory(Experience)

The Alphabet is the first Mnemotechnics which is orthotic in nature, and yet today organizes the agenda of managing (Stiegler, n.d.). The mnemotechnics refers to the technique which integrates the thoughts, minds and experiences of human beings and saved for people later to recall. At the end of 15th century, the printing press and mechanical techniques of production which provided a extremely new and made the way to store the memory.

Actually, the mnemotechnics now is techno-logical forms of knowledge. Moreover, the mnemotechnics is a kind of structural loss of memory, also, on the contrary, is a control of knowledge which displaced memory. For example, the GPS used when people drives cars. When the more technology improved, the less we know how to drive.

Besides the traditional printing press, there are a plenty of media advents such as media archives help people maintain the memory. For instance, the contacts on the cellphone played a necessary role in our life. It’s easily to find that we cannot remember enough contacts as much as before. Last week, I lost all the contacts on my cellphone, and I felt I almost lose the contact with the outside world. However, Stiegler describes our growing reliance on technologies: “Now, these cognitive technologies, to which we confide a greater and greater part of our memory, cause us to lose an ever-greater part of our knowledge. To lose a cell phone is to lose the trace of the telephone numbers of our correspondents and to realise that they are no longer in the psychical memory but in the apparatuss’s.”

Furthermore, Husserl (1964) put forward a memory theory which integrates primary and secondary memory. The primary memory is a lived experience in the ongoing moment which means a memory of a period. And the secondary memory is normally called ‘memory’ to recall. Our normall memory will be affected on technologies such as Internet is easily to lose. Also, synesthesia stories suggest that each time you recall something, you are remaking and rethinking something. For my personal experience, the Facebook page is a kind of technology which help me remember the things happened past-present. The timeline help me recall the things happened at one actual moment, however, some details maybe blurred and mis-remembered by the normal memory.

Reference:

Husserl, E 1964, ‘Lessons on Time’ in The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness, Indiana University Press,Bloomington.

Stiegler, B n.d., ‘Anamnesis and Hypomnesis: Plato as the first thinker of the proletarianisation’, accessed in 27th Mar 2013, <http://arsindustrialis.org/anamnesis-and-hypomnesis&gt;

Wikipedia, 2013, Synesthesia,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synesthesia

We are under control?(Metacommunication)

What’s media ecology? Postman defined the central notion of media ecology as the study of media as environments (Postman, 1970, 161), also it can be equally to say the the study of environments as media. Generally, media ecology is a study of complex set of relationships or interrelationship among symbolics, techniques, media and culture.

Below is a youtube link, a more clear definition of media ecology made by Lance Strate.

Also, there is an interesting example of Media ecology.

Then, we’d love to ask who is media ecology? How the communication of media and their techniques modified in human perception, understanding, feeling and value; and how human interaction with media facilities?  The media communications especially are rhetoric study which is the art of persuasion. It has potential power  for controlling the dangerous crowd which is out of control.

Let’s take meta-communication here as an example to illustrate how media communication has potential influences on controlling. Meta-communication as a new, third stage of media coverage reflects that media has a pleading role as a political institution in the third age of political communication (2001). For example. we always follow the information given by newspaper because it has an object stand to distribute information. It’s a kind of meta- communication, the media has a equal discourse role as political institutions. Our origin of information is sort of controlled by media, but are we under control?  For example, President. Obama has a political campaign team which comprised different areas of professions. The discursive discourse made by Obama is really impressed and persuasive to influence the voter’s mind. The media event Obama’s team used has a potential power to present a matured politic thinking and persuade the voter’s to support him. Sometimes, the correct use of media strategy will proportional control the audiences.

Reference:

Postman, N. (1970), The reformed English curriculum. In A.C. Eurich (Ed.), High school 1980: The shapre of the future in American secondary education (pp.160-168). New York: Pitman.

Spin Doctors in the Unites States, Great Britain and Germany, Meta-communication about media manipulation, The International Journal of Press/ Politics January 2001, vol.6 no.1 16-45: SAGE.

Loss Of Identity? (Machinic)

When we think technics, initially we will think it takes changes in our life. Nevertheless, our culture and social identity are diminished and threatened by the technical such as Goole glass. In this week’s post, I will explain meanings of ‘Machinic’ firstly, and argue how mobility affects on traditional medium and social identity.

Generally, another perspective of the technicsl might be its adaptability (Murphie & Potts 2002, p.31). Much of our perceptions, thinkings or techniques decide the technical productions in general. Also, we found our technologies that are more accelerated and more interactive. Moreover, the technicsl push the emergence of globalisation.  For example, the flows of goods, labor sources and cultures exchange among the countries.

So how can these sort of flows work? Definitely, it’s Machinic works. Basically, the machinic provides a way of thinking through how elements of complex medial systems cooperate to produce something more than the sum of their parts (Fuller, 2005, 6). Machinic emphasis on the way in which media technologies arise from social and culture forces. For example, as Fuller mentioned in the article, the pirate radio in London use the methodology capacity of machinic to be an amazing innovation. Also, it provides for a sensual and technical aesthetics that can be developed in relation to media and music. The ‘Machinic’ pursuits to build a relationship between two discrete or isolatable items and makes them work better.

Recently, the intrinsic way of radio cannot affect individuals any more. But alongside with music, the way in which the pirates have operated in terms of their mobilisation of media systems also make demands in recent years. We would argue, as the emergence of smart phone, which leads people to be lived more convenient and dated. Smartphone challenges the lifestyle of people and the social identity though. Nowadays, such monopolies of knowledge in limited linguistic areas, like the professional jargons that lawyers and doctors uses. Exclusively, much is made of computer elites, and the monopolies of knowledge of those who have access to Internet (Levinson, 1997, 12). For example, people always use the views from Facebook or Twitter, but either of them have been proved to be right. People become more rely on the Internet and mobile. We should argue here that a great many people experience crisis of identity, perceive as their personal problems, and for which they seek help from Internet or another sources.

url

Sadly, people experience loss or lack of a community, and they feel rootlessness. The loss of a sense of reality makes people lose their social identity. Techniques often register the culture changes directly in relation to media changes.

Reference:

Fuller, M., (2005), Introduction: Media Ecologies in Media Ecologies: Materialist Energies in Art and Technoculture Cambridge, MA; MIT Press: 6.

Levinson, P., (1997), The First Digital Medium in Soft edge; a natural history and future of the information revolution Lodon: Routledge: 12.

Murphie, A & Potts, J 2002, ‘Theoretical Freameworks’ in Culture and technology, Palgrave, London, p.11-38.

Brands Connect With Media Events(Event)

Media event refers to a way of communication to achieve a purpose of media publicity. I bet almost every Internet user would not be unfamiliar with Apple new products launch event. As a new product will be released, Apple always has a novelty launch event to introduce it to the customer. We’ve got a little more to show you, is their latest launch event for iPad mini, which impresses the audience a lot. It’s not only means the new product will be released later, but also means the size of the product will be smaller. Similarly, many brands concern how to titillate the customer with usage of media event.

Image

The terms ‘information society’ or ‘computer age’ reveals the technology-thinking notion that the society is shaped by its dominant technologies (Murphie & Potts, 2003, 12). Similarly, technologies also register the culture change directly in relation to media change. The media events could be divided into two different forms that based on different technologies. Traditionally, media events are covered in the mass media such as press conference, new announcements, television ads or guest speeches. Nevertheless, it’s digital era right now. Everything happens from Internet firstly, such as YouTube video, Facebook pages and Twitter posts. It also should be mentioned here is, ‘global media events’ are created by the new media technologies, the Internet, which allows people to access the international information.

The Apple is the professional expert at using such media events to drum up excitement for its products although other manufacturers are increasingly trying to use the strategy. Recently, it’s not really difficult to find that many manufacturing company adopt this strategy, such as Amazon, Samsung and Microsoft. However, Apple has nearly perfected the launch event, using them to drive anticipation and increase the sales. Apple’s media events are successful because they focus on the mobile experience over the technology itself and they help build a feeling of community around the Apple brand. We could find that the launch event of Apple not only garners attention for the product, it also boost the reputation of the brand. The product launch event of Apple shows the good relationship between brands development and media events.

The video below is a trailer of Ipad Mini.

Reference:

Murphie, A., Potts, J. (2003), ‘Theoretical Frameworks’ in Culture and Technology London: Palgrave Macmillan, 12.

The Dismantling Industry- Publishing

Are Digital And Networked Media Dismantling The “Publishing Industry”? Is It Being Replaced?  Are There New Difficulties And Complexities Or Expenses Involved And What’s The Future Of Publishing?

“It makes increasingly less sense even to talk about a publishing industry, because the core problem publishing solves—the incredible difficulty, complexity, and expense of making something available to the public—has stopped being a problem.” (Clay Shirky) 

The publishing industry incorporates anything in relation to published for the purpose of being made public, via digital, online and print mediums.  From the printing publishing to online publishing, the occupations and roles involved with publishing have changed a lot. For example, whether a journalist, editor or layout designer works differently not like ages ago, it means the publishing industry is at a challenging era and subject to rapid changes. Publishing, refers to produce and distribute the data, literature and information, which solves the problem of making something available to the public.  Traditional printing media, such as books and newspaper, which represents a physical look to readers, aims to make something available to the public. Since new media emerges in 21st century, it creates multi media platforms for readers to experience. For instance, people have changed from passive acceptance of reading to active engaging and ask how and why.  “The incredible difficulty, complexity& expense” is no longer a problem for publishing industry (Shirky, 2009).

Traditional publishing is dismantled in many ways by digital publishing and online publishing.  Firstly, new media reach more people than traditional publishing, which doesn’t include geographical and demographic limitation. Internet, also called information Highway, provides non-commercial online open source among disparate groups and individuals, such as Wikipedia.  Open source is popular recently because it meets worldwide consensus about a democratic Internet (Guthrie, 2011,189). Secondly, there is a transitional change from print to online such as reader tablet devices (Nook& iPad) replace the physical books and newspaper. The rate of forest loss has slowed down markedly in the last decades, due to the emergence of online reading. However, the dismantling of publishing industry not means the publishing industry disappeared, but rather encouraging it to a higher level.

In order to explain how new media dismantled the traditional publishing, I will use newspaper industry as an example to show a digital revolution of newspaper. Moreover, newspaper industry as a major part of publishing industry could reveal a big picture of recent publishing industry, both specifically and widely to show that, does new media entirely replace the publishing industry?

Digital Media is Dismantling the Newspaper Industry 

The fourth estate, media acts a role of informing people and watchdog of government. And, the role of newspaper is distributing information and data to public. The characters of new media and networked media are dismantling print newspaper, which specifically represent in the area of reaching more people, effective timing and lower production costs.

Firstly, print newspaper has geographical limitation, and it can only reach local people. With difference from traditional newspaper industry, the digital media can reach more audiences without geographical and demographic limitation. For example, The Times and The New York Times has launched official newspaper website to capture the international readers. The digital media also allows people to establish own archives. The media archives here means, which constitute a network of information and data, interact with each single identity to access them later. It wields unacknowledged power to impact distribution of information, individually and collectively (Stokes, 2003). However, the traditional print newspaper cannot be easily collected for later reading. Moreover, the new media individual archives could be understood as the author of networked news and information also can dismantle the print newspaper. The print newspaper requires professional journalists to write articles and news. However, the online news virtually disseminates information, it doesn’t require any technical skill, everyone could be a citizen journalist. For society thinking, new media offers more job opportunities for inconvenient people to work at home.

Secondly, the speed of online information is faster than physical newspaper. Due to limitation of time, typically, print newspaper cannot distribute the under coming events or news. However, online news is flexible, it could distribute information anytime. Therefore, public could receive the hottest news by hand in the first place. Also, online news is more convenient for public. For instance, people have to grab a physical newspaper for purpose, but he could know anything anytime if he is reading online. Usually, people don’t have enough time to read all content of newspaper on weekdays. However, more websites of news could be taken at the same time if people read online news – it saves time.

Another important point is that online news saves money. Digital news only need to pay lower the production costs than the print newspaper. As we all know, the fixed cost of establishing a newspaper agency is higher than setup a website to disseminate news. In terms of distribution, psychical newspaper would require delivery fees. However, it’s apparent to see distributing information via Internet is free.

In terms of publications, there more kinds of publications online than traditional print publishing. The publication of print publishing could be newspaper, magazines and books. The new media released more kinds of publication based on existing publication, such as fashion blog, commercial micro blog and free-lancer article. Also, networked media could encourage more people don’t who have enough money to publish a psychical book, to publish online.

Yet, networked media is along with speed and more timing content. But it still involves some shortcomings such as protecting copyright. For instance, many websites allow social network (Facebook& Twitter) to share the link of news. But as the increasing number of sharing, the link may disappear smoothly. Also, open source will diminish the content industry, because content industry earned living from payment for the intellectual property (Guthrie, 2011,192).

When specifically looking at print newspaper industry, we can realise that networked media is dismantled print publishing industry gradually. There several benefits of networked media that print publishing industry cannot reach, such as faster speed, more readers, lower costs and more publications. That’s why the subscriber number of print newspaper is decreasing, and more people tend to read online – it saves money and time.

Is Publishing Industry Being Replaced?

According to French thinker, Bruno Latour’s Actor Network Theory (ANT), it mentioned that all relations as these come into a network of assemblage, one-element changes, and the relation will changes respectively (Stalder, 1997). For example, the political system will constantly reconfigured, because even the new relations created, the new party formed (2010). The same thing will happen with the publishing industry itself can be seen as a publishing assemblage, which means networks of publishing and distribution would be challenged by how public recognise publishing, the new technologies applied, and the published content changed.

The publishing industry is transitional, from print publishing to online publishing. For example, the print journalism, magazines and books also have a digital version. These two different formats of publishing sharing source but also compete with each other. For instance, as we all know, the content of online newspaper is different from psychical newspaper. However, networked media strengthen the quality and quantity of information distributed. The digital subscription is increasing but print subscription is decreasing.  The reason of digital media becoming more popular is the emergence of digital reader devices, such as Nook and iPad.

Publishing industry has been changed by the new technologies, and the best example is E-reader.  Apparently, the traditional concept of a ‘book’ likes magazines and periodicals, which has been changed under pressure of tablets devices (Naughton, 2010). We have to say this is a fascinating change for most people who are frequent book buyers. The E-reader encourages people to have an experience of online reading. The advent of iPad and other tablets devices could make reading easier, cheaper and more convenient. For instance, people can access online bookstore to buy the books they want instead going to physical bookstore and sometimes having to wait the unavailable books. Also, Apple Corporation invents innovative software, Voiceover, to help blind reader have a sound reading experience (2010).

The process of individually exchanging information is called aggregation and distribution. For example, the social network services like Twitter and Facebook, it make people feel live a world around them, they can get more information through them. Also, people can add personal idea and comment on these social networks to gain attention.  The aggregation and distribution are the third form of publishing in recent years. It means people could grab and give information via Internet. It actually dismantled the traditional structure of distributing information and rebuild a new structure, which more democratic, stimulated and transparent (Guillaud, 2010).  When we moved traditional media to networked media, it basically changes the way information flows.  The power of disseminating information is no longer handled by the channels of distribution, but that is handled by us. For example, government and other important institutions may control the flow of information, which produced by traditional newspaper. However, as the result of public supervision, Internet can increase the accuracy and transparency of news. Also, it can stop the bureaucracy and corruption of government. In conclude, making the news on the network would allow massive advances of publication and make matured regimes of society.

However, online publishing needs speed, but speed and depth cannot coexist. Online news distributor, in order to produce more news, they don’t verify the origins of information. In other words, it means some of the online news could be made up or fakes. In print publishing counterpart, the professional journalists more focus on the depth of the news. As the results of this, there are still some people will subscribe the newspaper for daily reading.

Here is a video about online fake news: 

WorkAtHomeTruth, 2012, “Fake News Sites using the same comments to promote different products”, YouTube, (last accessed on 4 June, 2012)

The traditional publishing industry is being dismantled, but it doesn’t mean that print publication will be entirely replaced by online publishing. It means the print publishers should adapt in the new environment and learn how to tool up (Naughton, 2010).

What’s The Difficulty Of Networked Media Recently?

The traditional subscription and advertising cannot easily to meet the costs of a newspaper agency. In recent years, many newspaper website have a ‘Paywall’ system to help the company maintain in a short run. ‘Paywall’ means online newspaper will provide free news in some sections, but if people engage with reading more valuable and accountable news, they should pay for them. The New York Times advocated this way keep business go on consistently, and recently it announced the estimated subscribers reached 250,000(Gillmor, 2011). However, ‘Paywall’ only can run in a short period. For example, the news behind ‘Paywall’ on one newspaper website may be free on others. People will compare the price and more willingly to choose a free one. The ‘Paywall’ still cannot be long run strategies. So, what’s the future of the online publishing?

The Future Of Publishing Industry

As we discussed above, digital and networked media has dismantled the traditional print publishing by many ways. As the world shifted to Web 2.0, there are multi platforms online to publish, and everyone could engage in distributing information. People never like an audience to accept news by professional journalists, but act as citizen journalists to distribute information and supervise the authenticity of news. Nevertheless, the traditional print publishing still necessarily exists, because it officially targets on government and older age demographic people. The advanced aspects of the digital and online media stimulate the traditional printing to a better and more professional level. The relationship between networked media and traditional print publishing is always interdependent and paradoxical.

Reference:

Any-Space-Whatever blog, 2010, “Actor Network Rochambeau”, (on Latour) http://www.anyspacewhatever.com/actor-network-rochambeau/ (last accessed on 4 June, 2012)

Gillmor, D., 2011, “The New York Times paywall: the faint smell of success”, The Guardian, August 3, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/aug/03/new-york-times-paywall  (last accessed on 4 June, 2012)

Guillaud, H., 2010 (on Danah Boyd) “What is implied by living in a world of flow?” , Truthout, http://archive.truthout.org/what-implied-living-a-world-flow56203 (last accessed on 4 June, 2012)

Guthrie, R., 2011, Publishing, “The Era Of Digital Publishing”, Sage Publication Ltd: London, 1st ed, pp.189-192.

National Public Radio, 2010, “E-Book Boom Changes Book Selling And Publishing”,http://www.npr.org/2010/12/21/132235154/e-book-boom-changes-book-selling-and-publishing (last accessed on 4 June, 2012)

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Do visual media work differently to other media forms?

Visual media refers to use of image processing to analyze large sets of visual cultural objects to automatically generate descriptions of the contents (Douglass, 2008).  There are major differences between visual media and traditional print media. For instance, visual media represents information via a way that people can visually see. Furthermore, visual media could transfer complicated information to more easily understand.  For my personal experience, visual media, especially for pictures and videos, provides a realistic sense to receive information. Visual media represents information more reliable and transparent.  Importantly, the realistic information will evoke the sense of tension and importance, more easily to draw the attention of audiences.

This combination picture shows satellite images of, before and after magnitude 8.9 earthquake and tsunami stuck Natori, Japan on April 4, 2011 (2011).  Firstly, this picture showcases that what’s happening after such serious earthquake and audiences will have a realistic combination between before and after. Also, the picture also shows the impressively serious situation of Japan after this earthquake and tsunami hit.  The damage water can do is immense.

Climate change is a prevalent topic in these years, and audiences just can receive information from talking show and news reporting. However, audiences cannot have a realistic sense of what is the result. In this picture, audiences can really see what’s happening when climate is changing. It may leads frequency or intensity of heat waves, wildfires, floods and cyclones and that such disasters are more likely to happen in the future (Hood, 2011).  The picture shows the impressive information may help people think the importance of climate change and protect the environment from now on.

Visual media not only include static pictures, but also include video and movies. For example, this video shows the helicopter view video of giant tsunami waves. The video shows the impressive information even than a photos.

Visual media definitely work differently to other media forms. Visual media is better than other traditional print media to distribute information.

Reference:

Douglass, J (2008), Cultural Pattern Recognition, or Seeing Through Images | Automatic Analysis of Visual Media and User Interactions,

http://lab.softwarestudies.com/2008/05/seeing-through-images-content-analysis.html (accessed 29 April 2012)

Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Before and After (2011),

http://nexusimages.blogspot.com.au/search?q=japan+earthquake (accessed 29 April 2012)

Hood, M.(2011), Climate change, science and public opinion 

http://abalinx.com/wordpress/ohs/?p=660 (accessed 29 April 2012)

Helicopter aerial view video of giant tsunami waves (2011),